Who discovered carbon dating

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In diamond, each carbon atom bonds to four others in a dense network that makes the material the hardest substance known.But in graphite, each carbon atom bonds only to three others in a much looser arrangement of layers, each of which is weakly bonded to neighboring layers.Coke is made by heating soft coal in an oven without allowing oxygen to mix with it.Although commonly called lead, the black material used in pencils is actually graphite.All artificially produced graphite is of the alpha type.In addition to its use as a lubricant, graphite, in a form known as coke, is used in large amounts in the production of steel.

Amorphous carbon is formed when a material containing carbon is burned without enough oxygen for it to burn completely.Other significant allotropes include fullerenes and nanotubes.Atomic number 6; atomic weight 12.011; sublimation point 3,825°C; triple point 4,489°C; specific gravity of amorphous carbon 1.8 to 2.1, of diamond 3.15 to 3.53, of graphite 1.9 to 2.3; valence 2, 3, 4. a nonmetallic element existing in the three crystalline forms: graphite, diamond, and buckminsterfullerene: occurring in carbon dioxide, coal, oil, and all organic compounds.Graphite, one of the softest materials known, is a form of carbon that is primarily used as a lubricant.Although it does occur naturally, most commercial graphite is produced by treating petroleum coke, a black tar residue remaining after the refinement of crude oil, in an oxygen-free oven.

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